Frequency of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Hairdressers; A Cross-Sectional Study

Musculoskeletal Disorders among Hairdressers


  • Fasiha Kamal The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Mehak Hamna Zahra Gillani The University of Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Arzoo Nawaz Riphah International University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Zahra Aman Central Park Medical College
  • Asna Waseem Lecturer, Central Park Medical College
  • Amna Anwar Riphah International University, Lahore, Pakistan



frequency, hairdressers, musculoskeletal disorders


Background: Musculoskeletal disorders signify health problems involving locomotor apparatus such as muscles, joints, bones, tendons, nerves, cartilage, spinal discs and related tissues. Physical demands of the job like force, frequency of the task, weight handling, certain improper postures and standing for prolonged hours may increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders which represent the main cause of absence from occupational work.  Objective: To find out the frequency of musculoskeletal disorders among hairdressers. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that included 49 hairdressers who were recruited in this study using a non-probability sampling technique. Data was collected from various hair salons in Lahore. Both male and female hairdressers of age above 15 years were recruited in this study. Printed consent forms in English and Urdu were signed by the participants. The questionnaire was directed toward collecting the hairdressers’ demographic data like age, gender, duration of the job, the presence of any discomfort during working hours, affected area or body part and discomfort affecting activities of daily living and job efficiency. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for quantitative variables while frequency and percentage were calculated for qualitative variables. Results: The mean age of hairdressers who were included in this study was 24.97 ± 4.84 years. Almost 38 female and 11 male hairdressers were recruited in this study. Out of 49 hairdressers,  38 (77.6%) hairdressers reported musculoskeletal pain during their working hours. About 19 (38.8%) hairdressers reported the hand and wrist to be the region most affected by the discomfort, 12 (24.5%) reported it to be the thumb, 4 (8.2%) reported it to be the shoulders and 3 (6.1%) reported it to be lower back. Conclusion: This study concludes that the frequency of musculoskeletal disorders is high among hairdressers and the musculoskeletal pain at work affects the job efficiency of hairdressers and their activities of daily living. Taking short periods of breaks from work was used as a coping strategy by hairdressers to avoid discomfort.


Luttmann A, Jager M, Griefahn B, Caffier G, Liebers F, Organization WH. Preventing musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace. 2003.

Glover W, McGregor A, Sullivan C, Hague J. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders affecting members of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Physiotherapy 2005; 91(3): 138-47.

Smith D, Leggat P. Musculoskeletal disorders in nursing. Australian Nursing Journal: ANJ, The 2003; 11(1): 19-21.

Aptel M, Aublet-Cuvelier A, Cnockaert JC. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb. Joint bone spine 2002; 69(6): 546-55.

Fang H-L, Chen R, Fang H-P, Xu Q. An ergonomic approach to an investigation into the risk factors leading to work-related musculoskeletal disorders for Taiwanese hairdressers. Pro Int Assoc Societies Des Res Iasdr07 2007.

Mahdavi S, Mahdavi M, Safary M, Rashidi R, Dehghani T, Kosari M. Evaluation of the risk of musculoskeletal disorders using rapid entire body assessment among hairdressers in Khorramabad, Iran, in 2014. Journal of Occupational Health and Epidemiology 2013; 2(3): 138-45.

Mussi G, Gouveia N. Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Brazilian hairdressers. Occupational medicine 2008; 58(5): 367-9.

Mekonnen TH, Kekeba GG, Azanaw J, Kabito GG. Prevalence and healthcare seeking practice of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among informal sectors of hairdressers in Ethiopia, 2019: findings from a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2020; 20(1): 1-10.

Cruz J, Dias-Teixeira M. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the hairdressers: a pilot study. Advances in Physical Ergonomics and Human Factors: Springer; 2016: 133-40.

Waters TR, Dick RB, Davis-Barkley J, Krieg EF. A cross-sectional study of risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms in the workplace using data from the General Social Survey (GSS). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2007: 172-84.

Mishra S, Sarkar K. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders and associated risk factors among urban metropolitan hairdressers in India. Journal of occupational health 2021; 63(1): e12200.

Kuorinka I, Jonsson B, Kilbom A, et al. Standardised Nordic questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Applied ergonomics 1987; 18(3): 233-7.

Toomingas A. Characteristics of pain drawings in the neck-shoulder region among the working population. International archives of occupational and environmental health 1999; 72(2): 98-106.

Devereux J, Vlachonikolis I, Buckle P. Epidemiological study to investigate potential interaction between physical and psychosocial factors at work that may increase the risk of symptoms of musculoskeletal disorder of the neck and upper limb. Occupational and environmental medicine 2002; 59(4): 269-77.

Lundberg U. Psychological stress and musculoskeletal disorders: psychobiological mechanisms. Lack of rest and recovery greater problem than workload. Lakartidningen 2003; 100(21): 1892-5.

Huang GD, Feuerstein M. Identifying work organization targets for a work-related musculoskeletal symptom prevention program. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 2004; 14(1): 13-30.

Harkness E, MacFarlane GJ, Nahit E, Silman A, McBeth J. Mechanical and psychosocial factors predict new onset shoulder pain: a prospective cohort study of newly employed workers. Occupational and environmental medicine 2003; 60(11): 850-7.

De Smet E, Germeys F, De Smet L. Prevalence of work related upper limb disorders in hairdressers: a cross sectional study on the influence of working conditions and psychological, ergonomic and physical factors. Work 2009; 34(3): 325-30.

Almeida CGdSTGd, Fernandes RdCP. Musculoskeletal disorders in distal upper extremities among women and men: results of a study in the industry sector. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Ocupacional 2017; 42.

Côté JN. A critical review on physical factors and functional characteristics that may explain a sex/gender difference in work-related neck/shoulder disorders. Ergonomics 2012; 55(2): 173-82.

Hallman DM, Holtermann A, Björklund M, Gupta N, Nørregaard Rasmussen CD. Sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain: determinants of distinct trajectories over 1 year. International archives of occupational and environmental health 2019; 92(8): 1099-108.

Podniece Z, Tregenza T. Managing work-related MSDs in Europe—Lighten the Load. 2011.

Roquelaure Y, Bodin J, Descatha A, Petit A. Musculoskeletal disorders: how to recognize them as occupational diseas. La Revue du praticien 2018; 68(10): 1132-4.

Woolf AD, Brooks P, Åkesson K, Mody GM. Prevention of musculoskeletal conditions in the developing world. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 2008; 22(4): 759-72.

Gomez-Galan M, Perez-Alonso J, Callejón-Ferre Á-J, Lopez-Martinez J. Musculoskeletal disorders: OWAS review. Industrial health 2017; 55(4): 314-37.

Nath M, Varghese T, Mehta I, et al. An Analysis into Religious Violence and Socio-Economic Impacts in India. International Journal of Policy Sciences and Law 2021; 2(01): 2644-77.




How to Cite

Kamal, F., Zahra Gillani, M. H. ., Nawaz, A. ., Aman, Z. ., Waseem, A. ., & Anwar, A. . (2023). Frequency of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Hairdressers; A Cross-Sectional Study: Musculoskeletal Disorders among Hairdressers. The Healer Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, 3(5), 540–548.





Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>